Introduction :-

  • Chinese president Xi Jinping had launched.
  • Bell and Road initiative (BRI) in 2023 to invest in  more than 150 countries.
  • As of january 2023, 151 countries listed as signed up in BRI.


Promote economic development  and inter regional connectivity.

Two components of BRI :-

  1. Silk road economic belt
  2. Maritime Silk road
  3. Xixamping announced both components during official visit to kazakhistan and Indonesia in September 2013.
  4. Initially It was called one belt, one road (OBOR) but renamed – BRI.
  5. Examples – Railways, energy pipelines, ports, BRI investment sky scrapers, railroad, road, bridges, airport, dams, coalfired power station and railroad tunnels.

Vision –

  • Railways , energy pipelins, Highways, streamline border crossing to be make.
  • Silk Road Bell Initiative – Refers to proposed overload routes for land and rail transportation through langlocked central asia.
  • Maritime silk route – refers to indo-pacific sea routes through southeast Asia to south Asia, the middle East and Africa.


  • Market for excess capacity.
  • Boost trade
  • Develop western region of china.
  • Creative alternative energy supply route.
  • Increase influence.
  • Internationalization of reminbi
  • New investment option
  • Counter Asia-pivot

The council of  foreign relation has highlighted through BRI, China trying to expand the influence of currency ‘Renminbi’ International push.

There are many big project under BRI.

  • China-Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC) – largest project under BRI Budget – $60 billion.
  • Expected cost (BRI) – $1 trillian till $210 billion spent.
  • Project target completion – 2049
  • Leadership group which reports directly in- state counseling China.
  • Total Project – 2900.

Geapolitics :-With increasing expansion of BRI, danger economical imperialism by China  is growing (specially small countries)

Imperialism – Policy which growing colonalisation, as military force, by power .


  • Poor governance and instability
  • Separatist movement and ethnic tension.
  • Cooperation from neighboring nations.

Why should India Join the BRI?

  • Economic Benefits :- Boost to trade, Investment business engagement, It’ll provide direct access to Asia and Afghan, BRI would ease tension between India and Pakistan ; Tapi – gas pipeline  (Iron – Pakistan – India)
  • Security benefit
  • Geopolitical benefit

Challenges :-

  • Hight development castes for project.
  • India objection for opposes China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPE) a pilot project of trade initiative, due to its route passing through gilgit-batistan. (Dispute area between Pakistan-India)


  1. Contracts and Jobs :-
  2. Majority of jobs and contracts given to Chinese firms and people.
  3. Protest in several countries regard implementation of BRI
  4. Debt Trap :-
  5. China pushig countries in debt by providing loans to countries.
  6. Pakistan fallen in dept krap- USD 50 billion dollar, ex-combodition, Srilanka.
  7. Transparency concern :
  8. Instances of nation like Nepal and Pakistan abandoning deal with china to build infrastructure project due to closed tender process and strict deal conditions.

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